DRAIN CLEANING & JETTING
Septic Tank Information
PLUMBING Frequently asked questions
What is required for a safe and effective geyser
I am not about to tell you how to install a geyser. Again -
that's what helps to pay my bond! The intention of this page is
to inform you, in the interests of SAFETY what you should and
should not see if you happen to stick your head into the ceiling
space to check out your geyser. If your installation is
significantly different from what is described here, I suggest that
you get a plumber to look at it.
I will describe the typical basic requirements of a sound, modern
high pressure, horizontal installation. The following
description relates to a modern high pressure (400/600Kpa) system
typically made by Kwikot South
Africa and others. Horizontally mounted 150 or 200 litre units are
by far the most common in modern domestic installations. Less common
are old low pressure systems (100kpa) open pipe or "Latco" type
systems. Be aware that the parts are NOT interchangeable between the
two distinct systems - High pressure and Low pressure! It is
possible to remove an old low pressure system and replace it with a
modern high pressure system however - you buy a new high pressure
geyser and install it according to the current specification.
Vertical geysers are also common. The same rules apply but there are
some special considerations detailed at the end - with a
Here is what you should see (in no particular order):
Drip Tray. The most obvious thing that you
should notice right away. The geyser sits in a tray made of
plastic (often red) or tin plate. I prefer the plastic ones.
They don't leak. Since June 2001, the drip tray is not optional -
its got to be there and there has to be a drain pipe for it! The
drain is a 50mm PVC waste pipe that drains the tray by piping the
water out the house. I have seen many drip trays installed without
drains! If your installation pre-dates June 2001 you may want to
get a plumber to look at it. There is a fair chance that
there is no drip tray.
The next most noticeable feature would be the vacuume
breakers. These are small brass components mounted at the
end of a 30cm length of pipe. They two vacuume breakers stand
vertically about 30cm above the geyser. These are important. They
stop the water siphoning out the geyser when the cold supply is
stopped. The other other function is to prevent a vacume forming
in the tank and collapsing it. It can be argued that this is the
primary function but I dont see it as such. Remember that vacuume
breakers are a reasonably new requirement - there are still
thousands of old HP systems out there without vacume breakers and
I am yet to see one collapse. Just because I havent seen it
does'nt mean it's not happening however! It is also more likely to
happen in a multi story building because the siphon can draw a
more powerfull vacuume. New systems MUST have breakers!
A shut off valve (tap) on the cold water side.
The cold water side is the side that directly connects to the
drain cock and enters the geyser at the bottom. After the shut off
valve you would normally find a Pressure Control
Valve (PCV). There are a number of different types.
Mostly made of brass but some are made of plastic. You should
notice a overflow pipe connected to the PCV that leads to the
outside of the building. This is where the PCV releases pressure
and this is the pipe that often drips. Don't panic if you cannot
find the PCV next to the geyser - it may be mounted up to 10m
away, often in a more accessible place on a wall outside.
Sometimes it's in a little plastic box outside.
A safety valve, known as the
Temperature and pressure safety valve (T&P
Valve) mounted on the geyser towards the top, often on the
opposite side to the drain cock. This is a VITAL component that
should NEVER be messed with or "repaired". This valve should have
a metal (copper or steel) pipe connected to it and the pipe must
lead directly out the building. This vent pipe is an important
safety feature of the whole system. It must be made of copper or
steel - NOT plastic. The pressure rating on this valve must match
the pressure rating on the geyser. The T&P valve is the least
optional component - it has to be there!
Support. The weight of the geyser must be
adequately supported on the roof trusses. A minimum of two
supports under the "feet" of the geyser. If it looks shaky get a
plumber to check it out. Nothing like a full (hot) geyser on
the kitchen table to get everyone talking :-). Please note
that all 200 liter Kwikot geysers are not to be wall
mounted. The feet are not designed to support the weight!
You can wall mount the 150 liter units. Follow their instructions
- use 4x rawbolts!
Electrical isolator switch within about 1m of
the geyser. This was not a requirement on old geysers, but it is
now and its worth fitting one. The geyser has to be earthed! I
have seen many geysers with the earth wire unconnected. All the
copper pipes must also be earthed and bonded to the geyser earth.
This is not a trivial precaution! Get a qualified electrician to
check your installation if the bonding is missing or looks dodge!!
Electocution in the shower is always unpleasant!
There should be a cover over the thermostat
and element. Again - these are often just left lying next to the
geyser. There are essentially only two primary thermostat types -
the modern round "Kwiktherm" in newer Kwikot geysers and the VK
(rectangular block) type in older geysers and in some newer
The geyser may be fed (cold water) with polcop (plastic) pipe -
up to the shut off valve, but the pipe into and out of the geyser
must be copper or gavanised steel. The PCV and T&P vent
pipes also have to be steel or copper, especially the T&P
vent. The hot water side should be copper, steel or suitably rated
(70 degrees) plastic or composite pipe. Note that you must have at
least 1m of copper/steel pipe out the geyser - you may not
connect plastic (composite) pipe directly to the geyser.
The two vent pipes for the PCV and T&P. As
I mentioned previously these must be made of copper or steel -
particularly the vent out of the T&P valve. Why you ask? Well,
in the event of the T&P (safety) valve releasing, the water
coming out is likely to be very, very hot! If the pipe is made of
polycop then it will simply melt and then vent this water randomly
into your ceiling space! This is not likely to happen on the PCV
valve but the regulations say that it should also be made of
metal. I have seen a number of installations where the installer
has simply run a short length of 22mm copper into the drip tray.
The idea being that the T&P can vent directly into the drip
tray. A VERY BAD idea because the hot (100
degrees +) water/steam melts the drip tray and the PVC drain pipe.
I have seen this on a number of occasions.
Note that water enters (cold) and leaves (hot) from above the
geyser top - look at the diagram below. The PCV is typically
above the geyser and the cold water flows down into the
geyser. This is quite important because it forms an
anti-syphon loop that prevents the geyser from draining back
through the inlet in the event of a water supply failure. If you
get hot water coming out your cold taps when the water supply
fails then this is not working correctly. Get a plumber to come
and have a look at it.
The pipes into and out of the geyser should be
lagged. This is important if you have "think
pink" or "isotherm" ceiling insulation. This for two reasons - you
lose heat through the unclad hot water pipes and all the pipes are
more prone to freezing (and bursting).
There must obviously be no signs of water! Any water lying in
the trip tray is a sign of trouble.
Please note - I have described a typical, modern
high pressure (400-600kpa) system - by far the most common type
in South Africa. Vertical geysers are different although much of the
description still applies. Low pressure systems (100kpa) are
significantly different but fairly uncommon now.
Upgrading from low pressure to high
In the event of your old low pressure geyser giving up the spook,
you don't really have an option nowadays. You could buy a new HP
geyser and configure it as a low pressure system but that does not
make a lot of sense. There are benefits to using a high pressure
(HP) system - the most noticeable is that your hot water flow is
better. This means that you can shower and the bath does not take
hours to fill. The only concern is that the hot water pipes may not
cope with the additional pressure. In our experience this seldom if
ever happens. If the pipe is good for 1 Bar then it is probably
going to be OK at 4 Bar. There may be exceptions to this and the hot
water side can be "proofed", by testing if this is a concern.
The same general rules apply but the outlet and T&P valves
must be at the very top of the geyser. If the geyser does not have
two outlets at the top then a banjo joint should be used to combine
the two. The element and thermostat must always be at the very
bottom. Allow enough room underneath to allow the changing of the
thermostat and element. I suspect that there is a greater
temperature differential in a vertical geyser - in other words the
thermotat is a couple of degrees cooler than the outlet water. I
tend to turn the thermostat down a tad more for this reason.
Updated : April 2012.
Blockbuster Drain Cleaning - The DRAIN BRAINS 083 458
Contact me on firstname.lastname@example.org
or have a look at www.kwikot.co.za if you need more
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